Flagella depolyerization and repolymerization procedures. (Left) Method for the preparation of flagellar filaments; (a) bacteria are grown for 10 hours in LB broth; (b) centrifuged and resuspended in PBS; (c) vortexed to separate flagellar filaments; (d) bacterial cell bodies are pelleted by ultracentrifugation; (e) the supernant is resuspended in PBS; (f) the flagellar filaments are broken into smaller pieces by sonication; (g) depolymerized by heating; (h) the seeds are added to the solution of flagellin and repolymerization is carried out for 24 hours. (Right) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of flagellar filaments repolymerized from S. typhimurium. Reprinted with permission from ref. 7, Copyright © 2009, Elsevier.