Diatom-inspired silica coating on the surface of polyethylene (PE) separators. (a) SEM images of separator membranes with different surface coating. (b) Static water contact angle measurement images shows wettability on the different separators. (c) Digital photographs of thermal stability of the different separators after exposure to 140°C for 1 h. Reprinted with permission from ref. 56, Copyright © 2012, American Chemical Society.