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Table 1 Performance of CNT-based X-ray sources

From: X-ray generation using carbon nanotubes

Ref Year CNT deposition (substrate) Max stable beam current (A) |Max anode voltage| (kV) Pulse frequency (Hz) % drift in anode current in non-feedback mode (%I a ) Approx. turn-on (V/μm) (@ J a ) Focal spot size (mm) Notes
[159] 2005 Electrophoresis 10 mA (15 V/μm) 40 DC <5% ~2.6 (/) 0.15 Micro focus
[199] 2007 PE-CVD (W and Pd wire) 50 μA ~ (3 V/μA) 15 DC / / 0.05 Micro focus
[163] 2007 PE-CVD (W wire) 26 μA (5 V/μm) 40 DC / 1.6 (10 mA/cm2) 0.005 Micro focus
[200] 2010 PE-CVD (W and Pd wire) 0.1 mA (/) 25 DC <15% 3.2 (/) 0.0004 Micro focus
[201] 2004 Solution Processed 6 mA (15 V/μm) 60 107–8 <±1% ~7.1 (/) 0.15 × 0.03 Micro focus high pulse rate
[149] 2002 Electrophoresis 28 mA (/) 14 103 ±2-4% 2.0 (1 mA/cm2) 3.2 Pulsed
[202] 2006 / 1 mA (/) 40 1 ~50% / 0.2 Pulsed multi-pixel
[203] 2009 Electrophoretic 18 mA 30 102 / ~5.0 (/) 0.5 × 0.3 Pulsed multi-pixel (25×1)
[171] 2011 Screen Printing 43 mA (/) 45 5 ±0.2% / 0.6 Pulsed multi-pixel (31×1)
[203] 2009 Electrophoresis 18 mA (/) 40 103 <7% 6.5 (/) 0.1 Multi-pixel (25×1) shaped cathode
[169] 2011 Electrophoresis 3.5 mA (7.5 V/μm) 1.4 DC / 3.5 (10 μA/cm2) 2.0 Multi-pixel (5×10)
[204] 2013 CVD 0.6 mA (16 V/μm) 40 DC / ~8 (/) / Ballasted
[160] 2009 Electrophoresis 7.0 mA (8.5 V/μm) 50 10 ±13% 5 (/) 0.1 Shaped cathode
[205] 2012 CVD 90 mA (7.5 V/μm) 50 DC / 3.0 (0.1 mA) / Shaped cathode
[206] 2006 DC Electrophoresis 150 mA (12 V/μm) 40 102 / / 0.03 Shaped cathode pulsed micro focus
[182] 2004 CVD (Mo disk) ca. 15 mA (4.6 V/μm) 1.1 10−1 / ~2.0 (/) 0.5 Miniature battery operated
[150] 2004 CVD 0.3 mA (7.0 V/μm) 30 DC ±8% / / Miniature
[198] 2005 / ~40 μA (/) / 2x103 ~50% / 1.0 Miniature
[207] 2012 Paste 0.6 mA (1.4 V/μm) 70 DC ±2% / 3.7 Miniature
[208] 2013 Paste 1.2 mA (4.7 V/μm) 25 10 ~ <1% ~3.5 (/) / Miniature
[209] 2004 CVD (Mo disk) ~2 mA (4.65 V/μm) 10 10−1 / 2.2 (10 nA) 0.5 Miniature pulsed
[210] 2006 Ion bombardment (polyimide) / 25 6x102 / 1.5 (1 μA/cm2) / /
[148] 2001 CVD (metal wire) 1.5 μA (20 V/μm) 60 DC ±10% / / /
[151] 2004 PE-CVD (W and Pd wire) 1 mA (/) 40 DC ±8% / 2.0 /
[184] 2007 CVD 2.0 mA (0.5 V/μm) 10 DC ~50% ~0.2 (/) / /
[211] 2008 PE-CVD (Pd wire) 1.0 mA (/) 50 DC ±10% / 3.0 /
[154,212] 2014 Screen Printing 15 mA (2.6 V/μm) 20 10 / / 0.3 /
  1. Ia: Anode current (A);
  2. Ja: Anode current density (A/cm2);
  3. / denotes values not given.