Electrochemical delamination of graphene. a, Illustration of electrochemical delamination of graphene from Pt foil with PMMA sacrificial layer. Reproduced with permission . Copyright 2012, Nature Publishing Group. b, Illustration of direct delamination of graphene onto polyimide substrate without PMMA sacrificial layer. Reproduced with permission . Copyright 2014, John Wiley and Sons. c, AFM images of transferred graphene on polyimide without sacrificial layer (left) and with PMMA sacrificial layer (middle) via electrochemical delamination. Sheet resistance of monolayer graphene on polyimide transferred by the direct delamination method and the PMMA-assisted delamination method (right). Reproduced with permission . Copyright 2014, John Wiley and Sons. d, ‘Bubble’ (top) and ‘bubble-free’ (bottom) delaminated and transferred PMMA/graphene stack on oxidized silicon wafer. Reproduced with permission . Copyright 2014, John Wiley and Sons. e, Histograms of percentage of exposed substrate area (top panel) and sheet resistance (bottom panel) for films delaminated using the ‘bubble-free’ (green) and ‘bubble’ (red) methods. Inset of bottom panel: Sheet resistance of samples obtained via ‘bubble-free’ and ‘bubble’ delamination. Reproduced with permission . Copyright 2014, John Wiley and Sons. f, Transfer characteristics (Id-Vg) of fabricated graphene FET (top panel) and FET mobility (bottom panel) of which graphene are transferred via ‘conventional wet transfer’ (yellow) process and ‘electrochemical delamination’ (blue) process.