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Table 1 List of subcellular organelles and their functions

From: Designer nanoparticle: nanobiotechnology tool for cell biology

Subcellular Organelles Isolation techniques
Cell wall Gradient centrifugation
Chloroplast Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay, SPMNPS: Tag-anti-tag; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin
Cilia and flagella Gradient centrifugation Antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tag; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin
Cytoplasm Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tagged; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin tagged SPMNPs
Cytoskeleton Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tagged; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin SPMNPs
Early endosomes Gradient centrifugation SPMNP isolation assay antibody based pull-down assay; Biotin-streptavidin tagged SPMNPs; antibody-SPMNPs; Negatively charged lipid-SPMNPs
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)—rough or smooth Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tag; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin tagged SPMNPs
Golgi apparatus Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tagged; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin tagged SPMNPs
Late endosomes Gradient centrifugation SPMNP isolation assay; Biotin-streptavidin; antibody-SPMNPs; Negatively charged SPMNPs
Multi-vesicular bodies Gradient centrifugation SPMNP isolation assay; antibody based pull-down assay; Biotin-streptavidin; antibody-SPMNPs
Nucleus Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tagged; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin
Peroxisomes Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tagged; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin tagged SPMNPs
Phagosomes Gradient centrifugation SPMNP isolation assay Antibody based pull-down assay; Biotin-streptavidin; antibody SPMNPs
Lysosomes Gradient centrifugation SPMNP isolation assay Antibody based pull-down assay; Biotin-streptavidin tagged SPMNPs; antibody
Plasma Membrane or Cell Membrane Gradient centrifugation; Cationic silica beads; SPMNP isolation; antibody conjugated; Biotin-Streptavidin; lectin–SPMNPs
Ribosomes Gradient centrifugation; pull -down assay; anti-S10/anti–EF-Tu-SPMNPs; Biotin-streptavidin; antibody- SPMNPs
Lipid rafts Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-antitagged-SPMNPs; Biotin-streptavidin; protein conjugated magnetic isolation
Secretory granules or vesicles Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-antitagged SPMNPs; Biotin-streptavidin-SPMNPs
Synaptosomes Gradient centrifugation antibody based pull-down assay; Tag-anti-tag SPMNPs; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin SPMNPs
Vacuoles Gradient centrifugation; antibody based pull-down assay; antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticles
Mitochondria Gradient centrifugation; pull-down assay; antibody conjugated SPMNPs; Tag-anti-tagged; Antibody conjugated; Biotin-streptavidin; Anti-TOM22 antibody tagged SPMNPs