Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on two forms of CNT platform (A, B). Immunofluorescence images of osteocalcins (OCNs, green) and osteopontin (OPN, green) respectively, in hMSCs. The actin of hMSCs was stained with TRITC-phalloidins (red). C Expression levels of osteogenic genes, such as OCN, OPN, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and core binding factor or alpha1 (CBFA1). D Expression levels of genes included transduction pathways such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Rho family of GTPases member A (RhoA), and Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinas (ROCK). E Expression level of the genes of Wnt-antagonists, such as dikkopf-1 (DKK1) and secreted frizzled-related protein type 3 (sFRP3).