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Table 1 NWA effectiveness compared with conventional ELISA method

From: Innovations in biomedical nanoengineering: nanowell array biosensor

Method ELISA_fluorescence expression Electrochemical reaction
Basic principle Indirect Direct redox reaction
Limit of detection 0.2 × 10−2 U/L (μmol/L) 0.13 × 10−4 U/L (μmol/L)
Sample volume 200 μL per test 5 μL per test
Analysis time 1 h 3 min
Detection range Narrow (10 ng–1 μg/mL) Wide(10 pg–10 μg/mL)
  1. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was used as model biomarker