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Table 2 A brief summary of the representative experimental studies on NRR using various photocatalytic heterogeneous catalysts

From: Photocatalytic and electrocatalytic approaches towards atmospheric nitrogen reduction to ammonia under ambient conditions

Catalyst Electrolyte Condition NH3 formation rate Unit Quantum efficiency Light source Year
FeMoS-chalcogels Pyridinium hydrochloride and sodium ascorbate 25 °C 4.44E−11 mol s−1 N/A 150 W Xenon Lamp 2015 [20]
BiOBr nanosheets Water 25 °C 2.89E−08 mol s−1 g−1 0.23% Visible Light (λ > 420 nm) 2015 [21]
Graphitic carbon nitride(g-C3N4) 0.1 M Na2SO4 RT 3.44444E−07 mol s−1 g−1 N/A 300 W Xe lamp (λ > 420 nm) 2015 [51]
CdS:nitrogenase MoFe protein biohybrid 0.5 M HEPES 25 °C 5.25E−06 mol s−1 g−1 3.30% ~3.5 mW cm−2 of 405 nm 2016 [19]
Titanium dioxide Water RT 1.01273E−09 mol s−1 g−1 0.02% (Solar to chemical energy) 1sun 2017 [49]
CuCr-LDH(Layered-Double-Hydroxide) Nanosheets 1 M KOH 25 °C 1.85E−04 mol L−1 N/A 300 W Xe lamp (λ > 400 nm) 2017 [50]
Bi2WO6 by cyclized polyacrylonitrile (c-PAN) Water RT 3.89E−08 mol s−1 g−1 N/A visible light provided by a 300 W Xe lamp 2018 [80]
Mo-doped W18O49 ultrathin nanowires 0.5 M Na2SO4 RT 5.43E−08 mol s−1 g −1cat 0.33% 300 W Xe lamp 2018 [52]
Au nanocrystal-decorated ultrathin TiO2 nanosheets Water and Methanol   3.63E−08 mol s−1 g−1 0.82% 300 W Xe lamp (λ > 420 nm) 2018 [53]
ECG (electrochemical grade) boron-doped diamond Water 25 °C 5.55556E−11 mol s−1 N/A 450 W high-pressure Hg/Xe lamp (λ > 180 nm) 2013 [22]
Plasmon-enhanced black silicon SO32− Solution 25 °C 2.12418E−09 mol s−1 cm−2 0.003% 2suns 2018 [23]