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Table 1 Summary of recent self-healing systems based on supramolecular hydrogen bonds and metal-coordination crosslinking: mechanical characteristics, self-healing-conditions, and efficiencies

From: Advances in self-healing supramolecular soft materials and nanocomposites

Polymer matrix Healing motif Tg (°C) Mechanical characteristics Healing conditions Healing efficiency Appearance Ref.
UTS (MPa) ES (%)
HBP (PS/PA-amide) H-bonding 2–5 1.9 780 RT, 24 h 90% Non-transparent [26]
FA and urea H-bonding 28 3.4 600 RT, 18 h 80% Non-transparent [92]
BCP H-bonding ~ 2–4 ~ 4.38 ~ 750 60 °C, 24 h ~ 90% Non-transparent [94]
SPB-2% H-bonding 1 1.02 410 RT, 1 h 95% Transparent [95]
HN-DGEBA-TGMDA H-bonding 23 1.5 325 RT, 24 h ~ 100% Non-transparent [96]
PMMA, PA-amide H-bonding 1–5 3 500 RT, 24 h 80% Non-transparent [97]
Crosslinked PU H-bonding − 7 ~ 26.5 ~ 870 100 °C, 24 h 92.3% Non-transparent [98]
TUEG3 H-bonding 27 45 393 140 °C, 30 s ~ 85% Non-transparent [58]
LPU H-bonding 16–40 1.57 104.87 50 °C, 60 min 96% Transparent [99]
Fe-Hpdca-PDMS Metal–ligand 90 0.03 1850 RT, 48 h 90% Non-transparent [28]
Fe-triazole-PDMS Metal–ligand − 90 0.22 3400 60 °C, 20 h 94.3% Non-transparent [100]
Zn(OTf)2-PDMS Metal–ligand − 50 0.63 330 RT, 48 h 76% Non-transparent [101]
Co-triazole-PDMS Metal–ligand − 100 1.12 560 140 °C, 24 h 52.2% Non-transparent [102]
HBN-1% GO Metal–ligand − 5 to 9 0.5 550 RT, 1 h ~ 100% Non-transparent [103]
ACON Metal–ligand − 5 to 40 2 920 50 °C, 3 h 83% Non-transparent [104]
MD50 -F5 Metal–ligand 18 to 64 12 450 90 °C,12 h 98% Non-transparent [105]
ICPs-Zn (NTf2)2 (ICP-2) Metal–ligand − 37.8 1.7 593 RT, 3 h ~ 100% Non-transparent [63]
  1. UTS: ultimate tensile strength; EB: elongation at break; Tg: glass transition temperature obtained from DSC/DMA; Fe-Hpdca-PDMS-Fe-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (pdca) coordination complex with PDMS; Zn(OTf)2-PDMS-Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate-PDMS based metal–ligand coordination; HBN: amine-terminated randomly branched oligomer; GO: graphene oxide; SPB-2%: the functionalized polybutadiene-COOH and polybutadiene-NH2 based on ionic hydrogen bonding with 2 wt% of tri-functional thiol as a covalent cross-linker; DGEBA: a bifunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; TGMDA: a tetrafunctional 4,4′-methylenebis (N,N-diglycidylaniline); HN-50_75%DGEBA_25%TGMDA: hybrid networks containing 75% DGEBA and 25% TGMDA; ACON: secondary amide-containing cyclooctene (CO) network via carbodiimide coupling with N-acetylglycine; PMMA-PA amide: a hard polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and soft polyacrylate-amide (PA-amide) brushes that exhibit thermoplastic elastomer properties; MD50-F5: poly-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-2-methoxyethyl acrylate + 5% Fe2O3; crosslinked PU: the amount of the synchronous (C-ON) bond involved in fission/radical recombination that enables interrelated reprogramming, intrinsic self-healing of wider crack and recycling of the crosslinked PU; TUEG3: poly(ether-thioureas) with triethylene glycol; LPU: a linear polyurethane with high contents of urea and urethane group for h-bonding formations to facilitate self-healing; ICPs-Zn(NTf2)2: imidazole-containing brush polymers (ICPs)-zinc di[bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide] (Zn(NTf2)2) based metal–ligand (zinc-imidazole) interactions in the soft matrix of a hard/soft two-phase brush copolymer system and BCP: block copolymers (PA-amide)-b-PMMA-b-(PA-amide)