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Table 2 Summary of recent self-healing systems based on supramolecular hydrogen bonds and metal-coordination crosslinking: mechanical characteristics, self-healing-conditions and efficiencies

From: Advances in self-healing supramolecular soft materials and nanocomposites

Material composition Tg (°C) Healing motif, condition, and efficiency Remarks Ref.
MG-SHPU − 4.45 H-bonding, NIR radiation, and modulus of toughness, 40% 0.75 wt% MG (MG075) gave maximum healing efficiency up to 40%. Intermolecular diffusion of SHPU which was accelerated by thermal energy generated by NIR absorptions [106]
RGO-HPUs NA H-bonding, MW energy and app. 100% Composite is also incorporated with iron oxide/TiO2. This combined composites exhibited an excellent shape memory, self-healing and self-cleaning properties [107]
H-bonding, direct sunlight and NA
G-PAM-PAA NA H-bonding, thermal healing and app. 100% Above 10 wt% of graphene yields the self-healing behavior [84]
GO-HBN − 5 to 9 H-bonding, RT, ~ 60% Protecting barrier for electronic wires and devices, sealing layer for gas systems [102]
FG-TPU ~20–30 H-bonding, IR and MW radiation, and ~ 98% FG-TPU composites exhibit improved mechanical properties and could be healed effectively and rapidly by IR, electricity, and electromagnetic wave [84]
µNi-M-NH2 − 20 to 10 H-bonding, RT, 15 min, ~ 90%, Addition of nanostructured µNi particles with nano-structured surfaces significantly enhances the mechanical properties [108]
BNNSs-supramolecules − 7 to 43 H-bonding, ~ 100%, 85 °C, 30 min Polymer nanocomposite with 8 vol% BNNSs exhibits two orders of magnitude improvement in electrical resistivity over that of the pristine polymer network [109]
UPy-K-UPy/CNC-UPy − 50 H-bonding, UV-light, 20–80 s, ~ 100% H-bonded UPy supramolecular polymer and CNCs decorated with the same supramolecular motif show an attractive combination of high stiffness, high strength, and rapid and efficient optical healing [75]
Si-GO-HPU − 50 to − 51 H-bonding, UV-MW, 4–6 min ~ 100% The surfaces of the HPU/Si-GO nanocomposites also displayed inherent hydrophobicity without any additional surface modification [110]
CNT-PU NA Coordination bond, NIR-light, 90 °C, 1 h, ~ 93% Zn2+ coordinated metallo-supramolecular CNT-PU nanocomposite that showed a strong, tough, and elastic mechanical properties and was able to self-heal multiple times [89]
V2O5-PDMS-g-PUR − 12.5 to − 53.1 H-bonding, 50 °C, 120 min, 85.4% V2O5 nanofibers enhances the mechanical properties and healing efficiency of the PDMS-g-PUR through a reversible hydrogen bonding mechanism [111]
GO-PDMAA NA H-bonding, NIR radiation, 3 min, 96% Self-healable GO-clay-PDMAA hybrid hydrogels with high extensibility and mechanical strength contributed by both hectorite clay and GO as cross-linking agents [112]
GO-PAA NA H-bonding, NIR radiation, 30 °C, 24 h, ~ 100% The strong interactions between the PAA chains and the GO sheets are essential to the mechanical strengths of the healed gels [113]
GO-PAACA   Coordination bond and H-bonding, Ph7, 10 min, ~ 100% The polar groups of the PAACA side chains and oxygen-containing groups of GO nanosheets via coordination interactions [114]
HPU-SRGO NA H-bonding, 50-60 s in MW, 1–3 min in sunlight, ~ 96.8% Shape memory of HPU and energy absorbing capability of SRGO-assisted melting, diffusion, and rearrangement of the soft segment of HPU to crack place [115]
  1. SHPU-MG: modified graphene (MG)/self-healable polyurethane (SHPU) nanocomposites; NIR radiation: near infrared (NIR) light absorption; RGO-HPUs: reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/RGO)/hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU)-TiO2 nanocomposite; MW energy: microwave power direct sunlight; G-PAM-PAA: graphene modified with poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid); GO-HBN: graphene oxide (GO)-amine terminated oligomer (HBN); FG-TPU: few-layer graphene (FG)-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); IR-MW: IR radiation electrical simulation and microwave radiations; µNi-M-NH2: nickel-randomly branched oligomer (M-NH2); surface functionalized boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs); hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU)-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-modified graphene oxide sheets (Si-GO) V nanocomposites; CNT-PU: terpyridine ligand-terminated CNT/PU prepolymers; self-healing polydimethylsiloxane-graft-polyurethane (PDMS-g-PUR)/vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanofiber supramolecular polymer composites; GO-PDMAA: graphene oxide (GO)-hectorite clay-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAA); GO-PAACA: graphene oxide (GO)/poly(acryloyl-6-aminocaproic acid) (PAACA); HPU/SRGO: hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU)-sulfur nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) nanocomposites