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Table 1 Summary of representative RI-based infrared guided-wave nanophotonic biochemical sensors

From: Progress of infrared guided-wave nanophotonic sensors and devices

Sensor configurationImprovement strategyMaterial platformSensing pathlength (mm)Bulk sensitivity (RIU−1)Bulk LoD (RIU)Surface sensitivitySurface LoDRefs.
MZITM modeSOI2~ 460 × 2π radN/AN/A~ 6 pg/mm2[29]
MZISlot, Vernier effectSNOI71730 × 2π rad1.29 × 10−560 nm/(ng/mm2)0.155 pg/mm2[80]
MZI embedded with PhC nanobeamSlow light effectSOI0.0161344 radN/AN/AN/A[107]
Cascaded MZI and MRRVernier effectSOI5.421,500 nmN/A0.5 nm/(ng/ml)0.1 ng/ml[119]
Microracetrack resonatorN/ASOIRadius 0.00570 nm1 × 10−5 (i)b10 ng/mlN/A[33]
MRRPhotodetector integrationSOIRadius 0.1~ 18.8 nm3.5 × 10−5N/AN/A[38]
MRR arrayTM mode, temperature compensationSOIN/A135 nm7 × 10−7N/A0.3 pg/mm2[68]
MRR90 nm thickSOIN/A133 nm~5 × 10−4 (i)N/AN/A[71]
Microracetrack resonatorTM mode, 150 nm thickSOI5.053270 nm1.2 × 10−3 (i)N/AN/A[72]
MRRSuspendedSOIRadius 0.005310 nmN/AN/AN/A[74]
MRR arraySlot, 1310 nm wavelengthaSNOIRadius 0.07246 nm5 × 10−61.3 nm/(ng/mm2)0.9 pg/mm2[77]
MRRSWGSOIRadius 0.01440.5 nm~ 3.9 × 10−4 (i)~ 1 nm/nmN/A[90]
MRRMultiboxSOIRadius 0.03579.5 nm1.02 × 10−3 (i)1900 pm/nm0.313 nm (i)[92]
Two cascaded MRRVernier effectSOI2.5142169 nm8.3 × 10−6N/AN/A[114]
Two cascaded MRRVernier effect, suspendedSOIRadius 0.054.6 × 105 nm4.8 × 10−6 (i)N/AN/A[115]
Two cascaded double-MRRVernier effect, TM modeSOI~ 0.824,300 nmN/AN/AN/A[117]
Three cascaded MRRVernier effectSOIRadii 0.132 and 0.1385866 nm1.3 × 10−5 (i)N/AN/A[118]
Microdisk resonatorTM modeSOIRadius 0.01142 nm6.8 × 10−4TM 3 times of TEN/A[70]
Microdisk resonatorTM mode, suspendedSOIRadius 0.0008130 nm8 × 10−4 (i)N/AN/A[73]
Microdisk resonatorHorizontal slotSiNx/SiO2/SiNx on SiRadius 0.0075N/AN/A2.5 nm/(µg/ml)30 ng/ml[87]
PhC nanobeam cavity arrayN/ASOIN/AN/AN/A0.35 nm/nm63 ag (i)[45]
PhC H0 cavityN/ASOIN/A176 nmN/AN/A20 pM[50]
PhC WMC cavity coupled W1 waveguideSuspendedSOIN/A103 nm2.4 × 10−3 (i)24.7 ± 4.5 nm/pg490 ± 70 pg/mm2 (i)[52]
PhC L9 cavitySlot, suspendedSOIN/A421 nm1 × 10−5N/AN/A[85]
PhC L55 cavity coupled W1 waveguideSlow light effectSOI0.023N/AN/AN/A50 fM (3.35 pg/ml)[102]
PhC L13 cavity coupled W1 waveguideSlow light effect, defect holesSOIN/A112 nm1 × 10−7 (i)N/A1 fM (67 fg/ml)[105]
PhC hetero cavitySlot, suspendedSOIN/A1538 nm7.8 × 10−6 (i)N/AN/A[83]
PhC W1 waveguideSlow light effectSOI0.02174.8 nm1.55 × 10−40.706 nm/(ng/mm2)2.1 pg/mm2[106]
Bragg gratingSlow light effectSOI0.038150 nm1 × 10−5N/AN/A[58]
Phase-shifted Bragg gratingTM mode, 1310 nm wavelengthSOIN/A106 nm1.62 × 10−4 (i)N/AN/A[40]
Phase-shifted Bragg gratingSlotSOI0.132340 nm3 × 10−4 (i)N/AN/A[86]
  1. a1550 nm where not specified
  2. bdenote iLoD. sLoD where not specified