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Table 2 Summary of representative absorption-based infrared guided-wave nanophotonic biochemical sensors

From: Progress of infrared guided-wave nanophotonic sensors and devices

Sensor configurationImprovement strategyMaterial platformAnalyteWorking wavelength (nm)Sensing pathlength (mm)SensitivityLoDRefs.
Straight ridge waveguideTM modeGeSbS on insulatorN-methylanilineAround 1500100043.3 dB/vol. %0.07 cm−1 absorption coefficient[21]
Spiral rib waveguideN/ASOIGlucoseAround 159010N/A1 mM[61]
Zigzag ridge waveguideTM modeSOICH4Around 1651100N/A772 ppmv Hz−1∕2[62]
Spiral ridge waveguideTM mode, full integrationSOICH4Around 1651300N/A92.8 ppmv Hz−1∕2[63]
PhC W0.8 waveguideSlow light effect, slotSOIXyleneAround 16970.3Refer to Fig. 5 in the paper100 ppbv[110]
PhC W1.3 waveguideSlow light effect, slotSOICH4Around 1665.50.3N/A100 ppmv[111]
Two PhC W1 waveguideSlow light effectSOIXylene, trichloroethylene (TCE)Around 1644, around 16740.3N/A1 ppbv xylene,
10 ppbv TCE
Microtoroid resonatorCavity enhancementSiO2 on SiD2O1300N/AN/A1 ppmv[19]
Microdisk resonatorCavity enhancementGeSbS on insulatorN-methylanilineAround 1500Radius 0.02N/A0.02 cm−1 absorption coefficient[22]
MRRCavity enhancement, TM modeSOIN-methylanilineAround 1500Radius 0.1 (effective free space path length 5 mm)N/A2 nl[41]
Pedestal waveguidePedestal waveguideSNOIGlucose2730–3100/3300–36008N/A150 mg dl−3[137]
Straight ridge waveguideN/ASOICO24260204 × 10−6 in transmission500 ppm[145]
Straight ridge waveguideFlexibleAlN on borosilicateEthanol, methanol, water2500–2650N/A2% in transmission/1% water1% water[149]
Straight ridge waveguideN/ADiamond on insulatorAcetone5780–635030.13/(mol/l) in absorbance200 pl[151]
Straight ridge waveguideN/AMCT on CTAcetone5780–635030.023/(mol/l) in absorbance90 pl/71.1 ng[152]
Straight SM ridge waveguideN/AGOSNIPA3650–39004~ 0.0417/vol % in absorbance5% IPA[154]
Straight slot waveguideSlotSuspended SiN-bromohexane, IPA, toluene3100–340020N/AChemical tracing limit of 10−3 volume ratio[156]
MRRCavity enhancementSOSN2O4420–4470Radius 0.120.2/ppmv in Q factor5000 ppmv[157]
Spiral ridge waveguideN/AGeSbS on insulatorCH4331020N/A2.50%[160]
Straight ridge waveguidePaper based fluidicsGOSBovine serum albumin5260–10,00030.005/(mg/ml) in absorbance0.1 mg/ml[162]
Straight ridge waveguideEmitter integrationSOICO24260N/AN/A10%[163]
Spiral ridge waveguidePhotodetector integrationGeSbS on insulatorCH431101 to 100.01/vol % in modal absorption coefficient1% by volume[164]
Microdisk resonatorCavity enhancementSOCFToluene, ethanol, IPA5140–5260radius 0.06N/A0.05 ng ethanol, 0.06 ng tolune, 0.09 ng IPA[165]