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Table 1 Summary of recent significant works on electrospinning design of GNMs with polymer matrices using pre-processing methods

From: Graphene impregnated electrospun nanofiber sensing materials: a comprehensive overview on bridging laboratory set-up to industry

GNMs Polymer Solvent Additives Dispersion method/external force ES parameters: (distance; voltage; federate) Refs.
GO PVDF DMF: acetone
4:1 wt/wt%
Hydrophobic modification of GO with subsequent sonication and stirring (27.7 cm; 24.1 kV; 1.23 mL/h) [140]
rGO PANCMA DMF TiO2 Ultrasonication and microwave heating (30 cm; 14 kV; 0.02 mL/h) [141]
GO Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(butylene carbonate) DMF solvent PBC Stirring 18 kV [142]
GO PCL DMF: DCM 1:1 Stirring 14 cm; 18 kV; 10 mL/h [143]
rGO poly (ester amide) (PEA)    Ultrasonication bath (12 cm; 20 kV; 0.1 mL/h) [144]
GR PLA DCM: TFA
2:1 v/v
Ultrasonication (15 cm; 10–20 kV, 2 mL/h) [33]
GR PU THF: DMAC
3:2 w/v
Ultrasonication (10 cm; 15 kV; 1 mL/h) [145]
GO PAN DMF Probe and bath sonication and stirring (15 cm; 18 kV; 0.2 mL/h) [146]
Gr 66nylon TFA: acetone
1:1 v/v
Bath and tip sonication (15–20 cm; 15–20 kV; 0.17 to 0.5 mL/h) [147]
Gr Polycaprolactone DMF Stirring (10 cm; 10–14 kV; 0.4–0.5 mL/h) [148]
GO PLGA 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) Stirring (10 cm; 40 kV; 0.07–0.1 mL/min) [149]
GO/MWCNT PEO DMF   Sonication and vigorous stirring (15 cm; 18.4 kV; 0.5 mL/h) [150]
GR Polyamide 66 Formic acid Stirring (15 cm; 20 kV;0.25 mL/h) [151]
GO PVDF DMF Sonication and stirring (15 cm; 18 kV; 1 mL/h) [152]
GO-ZnO Gum arabic (GA) and PVA   Stirring and heating (130 mm; 0–50 kV) [130]
GO Polyurethane (PU) DMF Ag Stirring and heating (18 cm; 18 kV;1 mL/h) [153]
GO poly(Acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid DMF Microwave heating and ultrasonication (12; 25 kV; 0.03 mL/h) [154]
Graphene Nano sheets poly (Trimethylene terephthalate) TFA Stirring (14 cm; [155]
GO CA DMF: acetone
2:3 wt/wt%
Sonication and heating and stirring (15 cm; 27 kV; 0.13 mL/h) [156]
GO PLA DMF Stirring (6 cm; 20 kV; 1 mL/h) [157]
rGO Polystyrene (PS) (DMF: THF) 1:1 Magnetic stirrer 22 kV [158]
GQD PAN DMF DMF Magnetic stirring 240 cm; 15 kV; 0.63 mL/h [159]
GO CA Acetone/DMAc (w/w 2:1) Stirring (8–10 cm; 20–25 kV; 1.5 mL/h) [160]
Fluorine-doped GO, GO, and GOCOOH PVDF DMAC: acetone (v/v 4:6) 1 g of selectfluor and 0.1 g silver nitrate Stirring (12 cm; 25 kV; 0.5 mL/h) [161]
rGO PVP/Chitosan Acetic acid: water
9:1 (w/v)
Stirring (6 cm; 22 kV; 0.5 mL/h) [162]
rGO PMMA/PANI DMF   Stirring and sonication (15 cm;18–20 kV; 0.3 mL/h) [163]
GO PLA/PCL CF: DMF (v/v = 4/1) Magnetic stirring and sonication (20 cm; 20 kV) [164]
GR PVDF    Sonication and stirring (17 cm; 20 kV; 1 mL/h) [165]
GR PCL Acetic acid Gelatin Sonication and stirring (15 cm, 10–20 kV; 0.2–1.8 mL/h) [166]
Gr and GO PVDF    Ultrasonication probe (100 W, 40 kHz, 15 mints) (100 mm; 16 kV; 2 mL/h) [167]