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Table 2 Summary of recent significant works on electrospinning design of GNMs with polymer matrices using post-processing methods

From: Graphene impregnated electrospun nanofiber sensing materials: a comprehensive overview on bridging laboratory set-up to industry

GNMs ES NFs Postprocessing method Mechanism Potential applications Refs.
Ag-AQGO PEO/PVA Wet chemical route method The ESNFs were immersed into the as-prepared Ag-AQRGO solution to self-assemble the negatively Ag-AQRGO onto the positively charged NFs in an aqueous solution. The Ag-AQRGO was further washed away with deionized water. After drying in air, the AgNP-3D-AQRGO sensor was obtained Gas sensors [32]
PEDOT-CNT/rGO PVDF-TrFE Spray coating PEDOT-CNT/rGO is decorated on ES PVDF-TrFE NFs following these steps:
1. Functionalization of PVDF-TrFE ES NF: using dip coating of ethanol, potassium hydroxide and potassium permanganate and finally hydrogen peroxide.
2. Spraying of the positively charged MCNTs suspension and negatively biased rGO solution on the functionalized PVDF-TrFE ESNF
3. Coating of PEDOT on the substrate to further enhance the electrical conductivity and sensitivity.
Piezo-electric pressure sensor and wearable smart textiles [33]
rGO PVP/InCl3 Ultrasonic dispersion The hybrid nanofibers (NFI-rGO) were obtained via ultrasonic dispersion of 2 mg NFI in a rGO aqueous suspension (0.1 mg mL−1) for 5 min Gass sensing in different environments. with 44 ppb detection limit and a response time of 17 s [34]
rGO PVA Cross linking and chemical radiation modification method The PVA nanofibers were crosslinked (to make them stable and water resistant) with UV-light of 253.7 nm (UV-340 lamp) at 30 W with different duration (15, 30, 45 and 75 min) and then they were kept in both water and PBS solutions to optimize crosslinking duration Filtration, sensors/biosensors, thin films and packaging [35]