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Table 3 Summary of studies on the improvement of various properties when adding GNMs in the polymer spinnable solution

From: Graphene impregnated electrospun nanofiber sensing materials: a comprehensive overview on bridging laboratory set-up to industry

GNMs/polymer Spinning parameters Improved properties Potential applications Remarks Refs.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/GO (15 cm; 15 kV; 0.8 mL/h)
GO = 0.4%wt
Mechanical strength (by 3–4 times), the thermal stability and hydrophilicity (by 50%) Water treatment and battery performance The content of GO influences its dispersion and thus may affect the fiber formation as well as the final performance and properties of ES fibers [36]
GO/GR/Halloysite NT/PVDF (10 cm; 16 kV; 2 mL/h) Piezoelectric and pyroelectric. The thermal stability (by 94%) Young’s modulus increased by 20 times Wearable electronics and energy harvesting applications from body movements The content of the nanofillers shows significant effect on piezoelectric responses due to enhancement of electroactive β‐phase [37]
GO/PEO/PAN (20 cm; 20 kV; 1 mL/h) Electrolyte uptake ionic conductivity The content of GO influences the fiber diameter and ionic conductivity Homogenous distribution of GO fillers in the polymer matrix causes increase in the electrolyte uptake and electrical conductivity of the nanofibers [38]
PCL/rGO (10 cm; 10, 15 kV, 6 mL/h) s Mechanical behaviour, electrical conductivity and thermal stability Human tissue repair The evaluated properties were affected according to the amount of rGO used and the applied voltage [39]
GO/PET (12 cm; 10 kV; 0.1 mL/h) Young modulus by 50% MPa and the electroconductivity Improve cell attachment and proliferation The GO, spinning parameters and concentration control the electroconductivity, mechanical properties and the uniformity of NF [40]
PU-GO-PDA (20 cm; 20 kV; 0.2 mL/h) Wettability, water absorption, and both cell attachment and proliferation Bone regeneration of tissues PU/GO was prepared by electrospinning and then PDA was coated by immersing PU/GO NF in dopamine hydrochloride solution under constant stirring (1.5 mg/L in 10 mM of Tris buffer pH = 8.5) at room temperature in a dark environment. After 24 h, the scaffold was washed with deionized water three times, and air dried [41]
GO/(Sulfonated PVA) (17 cm; 15 to 18 kV; 300 to 800 µL/h) Thermal and hydrothermal stability, conductivity retention of humidity Ionic polyelectrolyte membrane The combination of the sulfonation, the crosslinking, and the addition of GO enhanced the proton conductivity [42]
PVA/rGO (6–10 cm; 15–25 kV; 10–20  µL/min) Tensile strength (~ 5 MPa) and and the elastic modulus (~ 1.5 GPa). Thermal stability and the electrical conductivities Biosensors, sensors etc. The increment of rGO (1% wt) improved PVA NF properties due to the strong interfacial interaction between rGO and PVA
rGO dispersion in the PVA solution did not alter the crystal structure of PVA
[35]
Ag/rGO/Polyamide (PI) (20 kV; DMAc: THF = 3:2, wt:wt%
Stirring
The λ, Tg and THRI values of the (Ag/rGO)/PI nanocomposites were all increased with increasing the Ag/rGO filler loading The aggregation of rGO can be effectively restricted by introducing Ag nanoparticles
[43]
PVDF-Pt–Pd/RGO-CeO2 15 cm; 12 kV; 1 mL/h Increased thermal and catalytic properties DMFC applications Novel electrospinning of PVDF-Pt–Pd/RGO-CeO2 nanocomposites [44]
GO-doped PVDF/CuO/Al 15 cm; 0.07 mm/min Heat of reaction and reaction efficiency of PVDF/CuO/Al nanocomposites
Strong anti-oxidation capability
Electrospinning and GO doping can improve the reaction efficiency due to the improvement of microstructure quality and nanocomposites performance [45]
PU and PU/rGO‐Ag 17 cm; 18 kV; 0.3 mL/h Tensile strength
Electrical conductivity
Cardiogenic differentiation
Potential
Wettability
Cardiac tissue engineering Adding rGO‐Ag and concentration influence the fiber diameter and the final properties [46]
MnO2-GO 10 cm; 15 kV; 0.5 mL/h Electrochemical dielectric behaviors higher charge mobility, diffusivity, and conductivity. Future energy storage devices [47]
PCL/GO-Gelatin 13 cm; 14 kV; 3 mL/h Tensile stress and Young’s modulus Anti-tumor effect of classical therapies The presence of 1 wt% graphene oxide increased mechanical strength of PCL/Gel [48]