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Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of different AMs fabrication methods

From: Heavy metal removal applications using adsorptive membranes

AMs Advantages Disadvantages
PMs Lots of selections for polymer material
Easy to incorporate polymer materials together
Membranes with smooth/porous surface membrane
Applying for regeneration and reuse
Be limited to thermal stability
PCMs Simple and rough fabrication method
Lamellar structure: non-toxicity, low-cost, high cation exchangeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities
Foul, slower, and more extreme recovery methods
Lots of depressions and microcracks on the membrane surface due to the manual compaction and deformation during the ceramics firing process
Unreachable sites and low surface areas due to the stack of lamellar structures
Be limited about recycling number
ENMs Lots of selections for the material
Easy to incorporate additives in nanofibers
High versatility in control of nanofiber diameter, microstructure, and arrangement
Membranes with high porosity (> 90.0%) and high surface-to-volume ratio
Abundant nanostructures: bilayer, tri-layer nanofibers
Applying for regeneration and reuse
Difficult to attain nanofibers with diameters below 100 nm
Difficult to attain ENMs with maximum pore sizes smaller than 100 nm
Slow yield speed
NEMs Larger surface contact, higher reactivity, and better disposal ability
Best describing the function of the nanomaterials in the membrane
High aspect ratio, mechanical strength, compatibility of the carbon matrix with the polymeric structure, and strong interactions and adhesion
Applying for regeneration and reuse
Requires particles with narrow size distribution
Decreasing energy demand
Need to use chemicals for membrane cleaning, membrane durability, and membrane performance