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Table 2 Published papers in heavy metal removal using AMs

From: Heavy metal removal applications using adsorptive membranes

AMs Adsorbents Heavy metal ions Removal efficiency (%) Maximum adsorption capacity (mg g−1) pH Recycling method Desorption efficiency (%) Recycle number Refs.
PMs CTS/PEG
nCTS
ECH-cCTS
GLA-cCTS
nCTS
ECH-cCTS
GLA-cCTS
CTS
PVT-co-PAN
PVA/PEI
CTS/PVA/PEI
CA/PEI
Fe2+, Mn2+
Hg2+
Hg2+
Hg2+
Cr6+
Cr6+
Cr6+
Cu2+
Cu2+
Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+
Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+
Cu2+

15.1
18.3
35.2
37.9
45.5, 92.0
86.9, 31.7
97.2
87.4
60.0, 26.0, 16.0
74.8, 57.4, 50.3
14.8
38.0, 18.0
25.3
30.3
75.5
885.0
270.0, 1420.0
950.0, 347.0
87.5
44.3
122.2, 37.1, 29.9
112.1, 86.1, 75.5
7.4
5.0, 5.9
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
2.0, 6.0
2.0, 6.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.0
5.0
0.1 M HCl
1 M NaCl,
10–4 M EDTA
1 M NaCl,
10–4 M EDTA
1 M NaCl,
10–4 M EDTA
1 M NaCl
1 M NaCl
1 M NaCl
0.03 M H2SO4
0.25 mM HCl,
0.25 mM EDTA
0.05 M HCl, 0.05 M HNO3
0.05 M Na2EDTA
0.1 M HCl
 > 98.0
73.1, 52.3
86.6, 50.5
43.2, 19.9
48.6
77.2, 49.1
40.3, 35.7
 ~ 35.0
 ~ 78.0, ~ 96.0
98.8, 61.8 (Cu2+)
 ~ 80.0
10.5
4



3
3
3
5

5
4
3
[48]
[50]
[50]
[50]
[52]
[52]
[52]
[130]
[129]
[53]
[54]
[55]
PCMs PANOB
CMC
Al oxide-CMC
Fe oxide-CMC
Fe oxide-PE8M
Fe oxide-PE25M
CPBC
PANlB
CCPM
Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+
Se4+
Se4+
Se4+
Cr6+
Cr6+
Cu2+, Zn2+,
Cd2+, Ni2+
U6+
Cu2+, Pb2+
99.8, 98.9, 97.4
19.0
19.0
15.0
95.0
84.0
95.0, 95.0, 85.0, 70.0
70.5
96.0, 99.5
77.4, 65.4, 52.6
18.4
17.2
8.2
8.8
7.7
88.5, 72.9,
51.5, 48.5
14.1
9.6, 19.9
2.0–7.0
4.0–4.5
4.0–4.5
4.0–4.5
1.0–9.0
1.0–9.0
6.0, 7.0,
6.0, 8.0
5.0
6.5, 6.0
0.1 M HCl
NaCl
NaCl, NaOH

HCl, NaOH

0.05 M Ca(NO3)2,
0.05 M EDTA, 0.05 M DTPA
0.1 M HCl
0.1 M HNO3; 0.01 M EDTA
 > 90.0
11.0
15.0, 44.0

90.0

 > 90.0
 ~ 68.0
72.1, 66.7; 75.3, 68.0
4






7
[58]
[59]
[59]
[59]
[60]
[60]
[65]
[66]
[67]
ENMs AOPAN/RC
PEI/PVA
PEI/PES
TC
PAN/PVA
PVA
CTS
PVA/CTS
CNC/CTS/PVA-SH
PAN/CTS
PEI/CTS
Fe3+, Cu2+, Cd2+
Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+
Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+
Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+
Cr6+, Cd2+
Cu2+, Pb2+
Ni2+, Cu2+
Ni2+, Co2+
Cu2+, Pb2+
Cd2+, Pb2+
Cr6+, Cu2+, Co2+
31.2, 11.5, 2.9
23.0, 25.6, 32.8
90.4, 89.8, 93.2
4.9, 4.6, 2.2
33.3, 28.0

46.0, 68.7
79.3, 77.1
39.4, 44.8
51.1, 52.9
50.33, 27.3, 19.3
417.2, 270.7, 127.0
70.9, 121.9, 94.3
94.3, 161.3, 357.1
49.0, 45.9, 22.0
66.5, 33.6
58.3, 161.7
10.3, 25.6
23.9, 10.0
484.1, 323.5
385.0, 240.0
139.0, 69.3, 68.3
2.0, 5.0, 6.0
5.0
5.0–7.0
2.0–7.0
2.0, 6.0

5.0
6.0
6.0
7.0, 5.0
2.0, 4.0, 6.0
0.1 M HCl
0.05 M EDTA, 0.05 M HCl, 0.05 M HNO3
0.05 M EDTA

0.1 M NaOH, 1 M HNO3

EDTA

4 M HCl

0.01 M HCl, 0.01 M NaOH
 > 70.0
95.6, 51.4, 20.7 (Cu2+)
96.2, 98.2, 97.2

 > 90.0

32.2, 41.8

90.6, 90.2

40.3, 21.0, 13.3
5
3
3

3

3

4

5
[84]
[86]
[89]
[98]
[85]
[81]
[96]
[94]
[97]
[100]
[99]
NEMs CCGO
GO/PSf
GO/PVA
GO/cellulose
AgNPs-St-PEG-AcANCH
PAN/MO/CTS
PAN/MO
pHEMA/CTS
CTS/HAp
CTS/PVA/Zeo
MOFs
Zr-MOFs
Cr6+
Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr6+
Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+
Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+
Hg2+
Cd2+, Pb2+
Cd2+, Pb2+
Cd2+, Pb2+, Hg2+
Pb2+, Co2+, Ni2+
Cr6+, Fe3+, Ni2+
Cu2+
Cu2+
81.2
 > 90.0
72.6, 62.3, 83.8
 > 90.0 (from Co2+ to Cd2+), 100.0 (Pb2+)
 ~ 90.0, 85.0
61.2, 86.0
36.4, 77.2
37.6, 25.1, 78.4
78.5, 80.0, 55.5
 ~ 100.0, 93.0, 98.0
6.0
98.8
67.7
75.0, 68.0, 79.0, 154.0
72.6, 62.3, 83.8
15.5, 14.3, 26.6, 16.7, 26.8, 107.9
158.2, 182.5
461.0, 390.0
91.0, 193.0
18.5, 22.7, 68.8
296.7, 213.8, 180.2
8.8, 6.2,
1.8
59.8
988.2
3.0
6.5, 6.4, 6.7, 3.5
5.7
4.5
7.0, 6.0
7.0, 5.0
7.0, 5.0
5.0


6.0
6.0
0.1 M NaOH
DI H2O/HCl
1 M HCl
0.1 M HNO3


0.01 M HNO3
1 M HNO3
DI H2O

76.9
 ~ 90.0
64.7, 54.8, 75.2
 ~ 98.0 (Pb2+)


 > 95.0
75.4, 72.5, 52.4
99.0, 92.0, 96.0

5
3
6
10



5
5
5

[118]
[120]
[26]
[121]
[128]
[100]
[100]
[122]
[123]
[104]
[124]
[124]
  1. nCTS natural CTS, ECH-cCTS ECH crosslinked CTS, GLA-cCTS GLA crosslinked CTS, PVT poly(vinyl tetrazole), PANOB PAN/organobentonite, CMC CTS/montmorillonite composite, Al oxide-CMC Al2O3/CTS/montmorillonite composite, Fe oxide-CMC Fe3O4/CTS/montmorillonite composite, Fe oxide-PE8M Fe3O4/PEI800/montmorillonite, Fe oxide-PE25M Fe3O4/PEI2500/montmorillonite, CPBC CTS-grafted-PAA-bentonite composites, PANlB poly(aniline) modified bentonite, CCPM crosslinked CTS/Al13-pillared montmorillonite, AgNPs-St-PEG-AcANCH AgNPs-base starch/PEG-PAA nanocomposite hydrogel, MO metal oxide, DI H2O distilled water, HCl hydrochloric acid, HNO3 nitric acid, NaOH sodium hydroxide, NaCl sodium chloride, EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Na2EDTA EDTA disodium salt, H2SO4 sulfuric acid, Ca(NO3)2 calcium nitrate, DTPA diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid