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Table 2 Performance of MXene-based membranes in water purification

From: Application of MXenes in environmental remediation technologies

Membranes Pollutants Experimental condition Support layer Thickness (nm) Pure water flux
L/(Bar·h·m2)
Removal (%) Reference
Ti3C2Tx Li+
Na+
K+
Ni2+
Mg2+
Ca2+
AL3+
MB+
PVDF 1500 37.4 [42]
Ti3C2Tx Rhodamine B
Evans blue
Cytochrome
[Fe(CN)6]−3
TMPyP
BSA
Au NPs
Dead-end/cross-flow
Co = 10–20 mg/L
AAO 200–1000 806
1084
1056
1120
921
790
1028
85
90
97
32
93
100
99
[43]
Ti3C2Tx—GO Brilliant blue
Rose Bengal
Methylene blue
Methylene red
MgSO4
NaCl
Dead-end
Co = 10 mg/L
Co = 0.1 M
PC, nylon 20–90 0.23
0.67
0.3
2.1
2.35
2.25
100
93.5
99.5
61
 < 11
 < 11
[44]
Ti3C2Tx Congo red
Gentian violet
MgCl2
Na2SO4
NaCl
Dead-end
Co = 100–1,000 mg/L
PES - 115 L m−2 h−1
117.6 L m−2 h−1
460 L m−2 h−1
632 L m−2 h−1
435 L m−2 h−1
92.3
80.3
23
13.2
13.8
[45]
Ag/Ti3C2Tx Rhodamine B
Methyl green
Bovine serum albumin
NaCl
MgCl2
AlCl3
dead-end
Co = 50–100 mg/L
Co = 2000 mg/L
PVDF 470 387.05
354.29
345.81


79.9
92.3
100
25.8
41.3
49.5
[46]
Ti3C2Tx PM2.5 PAN 1.25 99.7% [47]
  1. PVDF polyvinylidene difluoride, AAO anodic aluminum oxide, PC polycarbonate, PES: polyethersulfone, PAN polyacrylonitrile