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Table 1 Photocatalytic hydrogen production from monomeric substrates using visible light sources

From: Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from biomass conversion

Photocatalyst Substrate Power intensity mWcm−2 Production rates mmol h−1gcat−1 Refs.
Pt/TiO2/SiO2 MeOH/H2O 100
(AM 1.5G)
497 Han et al. 2015 [22]
Au/TiO2 MeOH/H2O
(Solar Simulator)
1.4–7.0 Serra et al. 2015 [38]
Au/TiO2 EtOH 100
(Solar Simulator)
5–6 Puga et al. 2014 [35]
CuOx/TiO2 EtOH 100
(Solar Simulator equipped with 150 W Xe lamp)

(4 mg h−1 g−1cat)
Ampelli et al. 2013 [67]
Fe2O3 EtOH
(Solar Simulator)

(20 mmol h−1 m−2)
Carraro et al. 2014 [68]
Ag/Fe2O3 EtOH
(Solar Simulator)

(24.0 mmol h−1 m−2)
Carraro et al. 2014 [68]
Au/Fe2O3 EtOH
(Solar Simulator)

(45.0 mmol h−1 m−2)
Carraro et al. 2014 [68]
Pt/TiO2-nanotubes EtOH
(Low-power solar lamp, 60 W tungsten)

(37.1 μmol h−1 cm−2)
Ampelli et al. 2010 [69]
Cu2O/TiO2-nanorods Glycerol
(Natural sunlight)
50.339 Kumar et al.. 2015 [70]
TiO2-nanorods Glycerol
(Natural sunlight)
2.95 Kumar et al. 2015 [70]
CuO/TiO2-nanotubes Glycerol
(Natural sunlight)
99.823 Kumar et al. 2013 [71]
ZnO/ZnS-nanorods Glycerol
(500 W Xe)
0.3884 Sang et al. 2012 [72]
Cu2O-microcrystals Formaldehyde 50
(Xe > 420 nm)

(82.2 μmol in 3 h)
Gao et al. 2015 [73]
Pt@ZnIn2S4/RGO/BiVO4 (Z-scheme) Formaldehyde 1.687 Zhu et al. 2019 [74]
Ir-Bpy-ENT (Iridium-based bipyridine- and ethenyl-incorporated bifunctional organosilica nanotubes) Formaldehyde
(Vis > 420 nm)

(14.9 mL in 5 h)
Zhang et al. 2018 [75]
Cu/TiO2 Acetic acid 100
(AM 1.5 G)
0.036 Imizcoz et al. 2019 [76]
NiS/CdS Lactic acid (with lignin)
(300 W Xe \(\ge\) 400 nm)
1.5124 Li et al. 2018 [50]
Pt/Holey carbon nitride-N-acetylethanolamine (HCN-NEA) Triethanolamine
(300 W Xe)
22.043 Liu et al. 2020 [77]
Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/g-C3N4 Ascorbic acid 334.8
(300 W Xe \(\ge\) 500 nm)
−   (3.045 μmol h−1 Zhang et al. 2015 [78]
Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/g-C3N4 Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid 6.3
(300 W Xe \(\ge\) 420 nm)
0.044 Zhang et al. 2015 [78]
Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/g-C3N4 Triethanolamine 6.3
(300 W Xe \(\ge\) 500 nm)
− (0.104 μmol h−1) Zhang et al. 2015 [78]
Pt/C3N4-TiO2 Triethanolamine
(250 W visible light source)
1.042 Alcudia-Ramos et al. 2020 [79]
Mn-MOF@Au Triethylamine
(2.02 W white LED)
0.6 Luo et al. 2018 [80]