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Table 3 Photocatalytic hydrogen production from raw biomass using visible light sources

From: Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from biomass conversion

Photocatalyst Substrate Power intensity
mW cm−2
Production rates
mmol h−1 gcat−1
Refs.
Pt/TiO2 Fescue grass
(150 W Xe)
0.061 Caravaca et al. 2016 [116]
Co/CdS/CdOx Wooden branch 100
(AM 1.5 G)
5.31 Wakerley et al. 2017 [114]
Co/CdS/CdOx Sawdust 100
(AM 1.5 G)
0.75 Wakerley et al. 2017 [114]
Co/CdS/CdOx Grass 100
(AM 1.5 G)
1.0 Wakerley et al. 2017 [114]
Co/CdS/CdOx Bagasse 100
(AM 1.5 G)
0.37 Wakerley et al. 2017 [114]
Cyanamide-functionalized carbon nitride
(NCNCNx)
Sawdust 100
(AM 1.5 G)
0.202 Kasap et al. 2018 [4]
CoO/g-C3N4 Wheat strawa
(300 W Xe)
129 µmol gcat−1 Wu et al. 2020 [20]
Au/CdS Waste paper scrapsa
(300 W Xe > 400 nm)
0.0276 Wang et al. 2020 [8]
  1. aThese studies did pretreat the biomass substrate prior to photocatalytic utilization