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Table 1 The summary of photocatalytic nitrogen reduction performances and its operating conditions: photocatalysts

From: Rational design of photocatalysts for ammonia production from water and nitrogen gas

Photocatalysts Light source Hole scavenger Ammonia production rate Ammonia detection methods Refs
PCN/rGO(0.2) 250 W Xe lamp 400 nm < λ < 800 nm  1 mM EDTA-2Na 544.6 µmol·L-1·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagentb [14]
Ru/TiO2 300 W Xe lamp 20% C2H5OH 3.31 µmol·g−1·h−1 Indophenol blue [20]
Cu/g-C3N4 300 W Xe lamp 400 nm < λ < 800 nm 20% C2H5OH 186 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [34]
Ni-0.8-TiO2 300 W Xe lamp None 46.80 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [45]
6%-TiO2 300 W Xe lamp None 78.9 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [46]
Fe0.1Sr0.9TiO3 300 W Xe lamp None 30.1 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [47]
Vo-BiOBr nanosheets 300 W Xe lamp None 54.70 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler's reagent [49]
V-g-C3N4a 300 W Xe lamp 420 nm > λ 20% CH3OH 1240 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [50]
Bi2MoO6/Ov-BiOBr 300 W Xe lamp None 90.7 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [51]
Au/TiO2-Ov 300 W Xe lamp 420 nm > λ 10% CH3OH 78.6 µmol·g−1·h−1 Indophenol blue [52]
Au/(BiO)2CO3 300 W Xe lamp None 38.2 µmol·g−1·h−1 Indophenol blue [53]
BiOCl 500 W Xe lamp 25% CH3OH 92.4 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler's reagent [54]
Bi5O7I 300 W Xe lamp 20% CH3OH 111.5 µmol·L−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [55]
Bi5O7Br 300 W Xe lamp 400 nm > λ None 1380 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler's reagent [56]
20Fe-2Al@3DGraphene 500 W Hg lamp None 430 µmol·g−1·h−1 Indophenol blue [57]
Ultrathin MoS2 500 W Xe lamp 420 nm > λ None 325 µmol·g−1·h−1 Isotopic labeling [58]
CuCr-NSs 300 W Xe lamp 400 nm > λ None 184.8 µmol·L−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [59]
Mo-doped W18O49 300 W Xe lamp 1 mM Na2SO3 195.5 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent, Ion chromatography [60]
BiO quantum dots 500 W Xe lamp None 1226 µmol·g−1·h−1 Indophenol blue [61]
C-WO3·H2O 500 W Xe lamp None 205 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler's reagent [62]
Fe-doped g-C3N4 250 W Na lamp 400 nm < λ < 800 nm 0.1% C2H5OH 317.1 µmol·L−1·g-1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [63]
5% Ru@n-GaN NWs 300 W Xe lamp None 120 µmol·g−1·h−1 Indophenol blue [64]
Ga2O3-DBD/g-C3N4 500 W Xe lamp 0.04 mM CH3OH 112.5 µmol·L−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [65]
TiO2@C/g-C3N4 300 W Xe lamp 420 nm > λ 20% CH3OH 250.6 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [66]
g-C3N4/MgAlFeO 250 W Na lamp 400 nm < λ < 800 nm 0.1% C2H5OH 440.4 µmol·L-1·g−1·h−1 Nessler's reagent [67]
TiO2/Au/a-TiO2 300 W Xe lamp None 0.0134 µmol·cm−2·h−1 Indophenol blue [68]
Fe2O3 500 W Xe lamp 0.1% C2H5OH 1362.5 µmol·L−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [69]
H-Bi2MoO6 300 W Xe lamp with a 420 nm cutoff filter None 1300 µmol·g−1·h−1 Nessler’s reagent [70]
  1. aWhere V denoted nitrogen vacancies
  2. bNessler’s reagent, K2HgI4, is one of photometric indicators for NH3 detection and quantification [71]