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Table 1 Typical materials and preparation strategy applied for sustained-release nanopesticides

From: Recent development in functional nanomaterials for sustainable and smart agricultural chemical technologies

Matrix material/
active ingredient
Fabrication strategy/method Refs.
Sodium Alginate
/Imidacloprid
Entrapment/Emulsion cross linking technology [31]
Starch Acetate /Avermectin Entrapment/Emulsion-solvent evaporation (PME technology) [32]
Hypromellose Acetate Succinate/Abamectin Entrapment/Nanoprecipitation [33]
Sodium Lignosulfonate and CTAB
/Avermectin-
Entrapment/Electrostatic Self-Assembly [36]
Benzoyl Lignin
/λ-Cyhalothrin
Entrapment/Nanoprecipitation [37]
PLA
/Chlorantraniliprole
Entrapment/Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation (PME technology) [40]
PLGA
/Pyraclostrobin
Entrapment/Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation (microfluidic technology) [41]
Synthetic Polymer/Difenoconazole, Prochloraz, Pyraclostrobin, and Tebuconazole Entrapment/ “Hat”-Shaped Janus Carriers Formed by Emulsion Interfacial Polymerization [42]
Synthetic Castor Oil-Based Polyurethanes
/Avermectin
Entrapment/Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation [43]
Calcium Carbonate /Validamycin Entrapment/Reversed-phase Microemulsion [47]
Active Carbon/2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Sodium Physical Adsorption [48]
Porous Silica Nanosphere /Imidacloprid [49]
Zirconium-based MOF
/Pyrethroids
[59]
Iron-Based MOFs
/Chlorantraniliprole
[60]
Aluminum-Based MOFs/ Azoxystrobin and Diniconazole [61]
Iron-based MOFs
/Diniconazole
[62]
Fe3O4-MOF Core–shell Nanocarrier/Imidacloprid [63]
Zinc MOF
/ortho-Disulfides
Entrapment With Further Modification with β-Cyclodextrin [64]