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Table 2 Typical fabrucation and preparation of stimulated-release nanopesticides

From: Recent development in functional nanomaterials for sustainable and smart agricultural chemical technologies

Category Carrier Material/
active ingredient
Fabrication Method Stimulation Refs.
Valve-Regulated Preparation Mesoporous Silica (core), PhAPTMS and α-Cyclodextrin (valve) /Chlorantraniliprole Pesticide physically loaded in core structure; blocked by supramolecular structure formed by valve chemicals α-amylase in insect intestine hydrolyzes α-cyclodextrin to open the valve [50]
HCMs (core), PEG and α-Cyclodextrin (valve) /Imidacloprid Infrared light increases the system temperature and disrupt the valve for the photothermal effect of HCMs [51]
Attapulgite in Biochar (core), ASO and Azobenzene (valve)/ Glyphosate Pesticide physically loaded in cores; blocked by ASO layer UV–Vis light induces reversible cis–trans isomerization conversion of azobenzene, disturbing the ASO layer and promoting pesticide release [52]
NH4HCO3 containing Attapulgite (core), ASO and PVA (valve)/Glyphosate Rising temperature, decomposes NH4HCO3 to produce CO2 and NH3 bubbles and generating micro/nano pores in the valve layer for pesticide release [53]
BNNP (core), PEG (valve)/Avermectin Avermectin physically adsorbed in PEG-conjugated BNNP PEG units are detached under strong alkaline condition to facilitate avermectin release [54]
Integral Stimulated-Release Graphene Oxide/ Cyhalothrin, Bifenthrin and fFenpropathrin Physical Adsorption Rising temperature facilitates pesticides release [55]
Chitosan/Spinosad Chitosan microparticles formed via coprecipitation, spinosad loaded via physical adsorption and adhesion Protonation of amino groups of chitosan in acidic condition causes a gradual solubilization of the chitosan microparticles to release spinosad [56]
Oligomeric Imine Based Surfactant/ Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic pesticides The pesticides entrapped in worm-like micelles formed by surfactant molecular assembling The imine groups of the surfactant could be hydrolyzed in acidic environment created by CO2 to release pesticides [1]
Kasugamycin was conjugated with APTES and then forming pesticide-contained silica NPs via sol–gel method Amidase in pathogenic microorganisms could disintegrate the nanopesticide to release kasugamycin [57]
pH-Jump Reagent 2,4-Dinitrobenzaldehyde and Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (MOF)/Prochloraz In situ addition of prochloraz and pH-jump reagent in the synthesis process of the MOF structure UV light makes pH-jump reagent to acidify the environment, interrupting the MOF structure to release prochloraz [65]