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Table 3 Typical nano-fabricated fertilizers

From: Recent development in functional nanomaterials for sustainable and smart agricultural chemical technologies

Category Materials for nanostructure Fabrication strategy/
Concrete method
Nutrient-release Mechanism References
Nano-Supported Fertilizers Calcium Phosphate Entrapment/Doping nutrients into the nanocarrier formation system Diffusion [66,67,68,69,70,71]
Chitosan and Anionic Compounds Entrapment/Electrostatic self-assembly Diffusion and Chitosan hydrolysis [72,73,74,75]
Liposome Entrapment/Solvent-injection techniques or thin lipid-film hydration and extrusion methods Integrity disruption caused by osmotic pressure [76, 77]
Nanofibers with PVA cores and PLA shells Entrapment/Co-axial electrospinning Diffusion & PLA shell hydrolysis and peeling [78]
Ethylene Oxide/Propylene Oxide Block Copolymer and Porous Palygorskite Nanoparticles Entrapment/Fe nutrient physically adsorbed into palygorskite nanoparticles and then coated with the copolymer to block the nutrient Temperature-stimulated release by utilizing the temperature-sensitive property of the copolymer [80]
Carboxyl Cellulose Entrapment/Chelation of carboxyl cellulose and Fe2+ pH-stimulated release, the nanostructure would be disintegrated in acidic condition [81]
Porous Halloysite Nanotubes & Chitosan Entrapment/Urea was physically adsorbed into porous halloysite nanotubes which were further coated with chitosan to block the nutrient Glutathione produced by crops could broke down chitosan [82]
Biochar Entrapment/physical adsorption Diffusion [83,84,85]
Inorganic Porous Materials: zinc aluminosilicate, zinc layered hydroxide-nitrate, Zeolite, etc Entrapment/physical adsorption Diffusion [86,87,88]
Nanosized Fertilizers HA & Organic Acids Neutralization of Ca2+ and PO43−, organic acids could be functionalized by dipping Dissolving promoted by nanometerization and organic acid-functionalization [89,90,91]
HA & Urea and Thermoplastic Starch Mixing Dissolving promoted by nanometerization and the soluble host matrixes of urea and starch [92]
Leonardite Potassium Humate & Fe2(SO4)3 Coprecipitation Slow dissolving [93]
Manganese Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticle Template-free microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis technique Slow dissolving [94]
Metal–Organic Framework (MOF) Hydrothermal method, microwave method, etc Slow dissolving [95,96,97,98,99]
Nano-Wrapped Fertilizers Nano-Silica Spraying the mixture of nano-silica and coating polymer on the surface of regular size urea Reducing the porosity of coating through -OH cross-linking, thus extending release longevity of the coated urea tablet [100]
Nano-Silica and Nano Lauric Acid Copper Spraying nanomaterials such as nano-silica and nano lauric acid copper on the surface of polyurethane coated urea tablets Nanomaterials endow coating surface super-hydrophobicity, avoiding direct dissolution of urea by liquid water [101,102,103, 108]
Sodium Alginate-Loaded Hollow Nano-Silica Sodium alginate-loaded hollow nano-silica was electrostatically adsorbed on the polyurethane coating of regular size urea The sodium alginate would release to form gel with Ca2+, thus blocking the pores and cracks of the coating to regulate the release rate [109]